The Role of Sound in Design Guidelines
THE ROLE OF SOUND IN EIGHT DESIGN GUIDELINES OF MULTIMEDIA LEARNING. The work is to be 7 pages with three to five sources, with in-text citations and a reference page. This paper presents a review of relevant literature along with the design guidelines of multimedia learning by the instructional designers in order to investigate what, when, and why they prefer to use sound in to their multimedia based learning courseware. The verbal information can be presented in multimedia learning courseware through various options. Latest techniques like streaming media files and podcasts, which require increased bandwidth, have also augmented the possibilities of integrating sound in to online-multimedia-learning-environments. The educational technology generally employs three basic audio elements which are music, speech, and sound effects (Mann, 2005). These elements enable the multimedia-learning-application to deliver information, convey emotions, attain direct attention, and provide feedback. The most powerful and expressive medium available to the designer for instructional messages is human speech (Mann, 2008). The instructional designers can make use of the attributes of sound such as pitch, loudness, tone and pace to motivate, educate and inform the students. The instructional designers must consider numerous variables while deciding for the sound or audio to be incorporated into their multimedia-learning courseware. Often, the sound to be selected as an instructional medium is self-evident, due to the characteristics of the target audience or the content of the course (Alessi & Trollip, 2001). For instance, sound is necessary for learning a new language, studying music, or discriminating sound effects such like sonar signals or heartbeats. Moreover, adults who are visually challenged or are incapable of reading or children who have not yet learned to read can benefit from the audio instructions (Beecue etal. , 2001). 1.1 Purpose The purpose of this research paper is to determine the role of sound in eight design guidelines of multimedia learning. This research objective can be achieved through investigating the following three research questions: 1. What types of sound are implemented by the instructional designers? 2. Why sound is incorporated into multimedia learning? 3. When do instructional designers choose to incorporate sound into their multimedia based courseware? 2. What is Multimedia? Multimedia refers to the use of more than one media that includes text, animation, graphics, video, pictures and sound to provide information (Bagui, 1998. Clark & Feldon, 2005). Bagui (1998) suggests that the relationship between the multimedia and the natural way of human learning can be illustrated through the information processing theory that describes how human-mind receives and learns information, a process which can be related to an electronic computer (p. 3). Technology employed in computer-based and multimedia education has the potential to deliver massive information, however, the processing of such information by the human receptor the learner may be limited. A study by Clark (1994) about the influence of media over learning investigates that whether or not the multimedia technology really works in learning? (Clark, 1994).